This is not correct. There are hosts of federal gun laws: the National Forearms Act of 1934, which strictly regulates full-auto firearms, silencers and short-barreled rifles and shotguns; the Gun Control Act of 1968, which set up the regulatory structure for firearms dealers (Federal Firearms Licensees) and banned interstate private sales of firearms; plus a couple of laws from the 1990s that (among other things) set up a national background check system that all gun dealers must use before selling guns to customers (with a couple of narrow exceptions).
It is relatively easy to come a-cropper of federal gun laws in the US. In fact, I recommended that a member of this very board not pursue a line of action he was discussing as it would have made him a felon under GCA 68.
Various states have stricter regs on owning, possessing and carrying firearms. In fact federal law says very little about carrying firearms, leaving it to the states to regulate the carrying of firearms. The exceptions to this relate to federal property such as military bases and post offices, and (notably, in this case) largely prohibiting firearm possession within 1000 feet of school property.
This is true nationwide. There are exceptions in some states for holders of concealed carry permits since they got the background check already when they got the permit.
Private parties (i.e. non-dealers) who sell/give guns to each other are not required to run a background check, at least under federal law. The loophole the Uvalde killer seems to have used is not having been indicted for/convicted of any crimes that would have made him a prohibited possessor, so he passed his background check at his local gun dealer.
Correct. Many people in America look at yesterday’s events and conclude that guns are too easy to get in America. Others look at yesterday’s events and conclude that we and our children need protection against violent evil men. (America has a great many more violent evil men than New Zealand does.)
I would like to point out that “guns” are the default narrative of our media (perhaps media worldwide given the question), but there is a lot more here at play. America has been swimming in guns since forever, but these types of massacres are relatively new. When my father was 16, he sent away mail-order for a lever-action rifle that had been designed in 1894 and would be a very useful tool for someone plotting a massacre. The US Postal Service dropped it on his doorstep with no questions asked. (Mail order guns were largely banned by GCA 68.) My father also used to regularly bring a gun to school. It was a commonplace activity: How else was one to hunt on the way home from school? Yet these massacres were basically unknown in his day. What changed? It isn’t the evil spirits that inhabit AR-15s, which reached dealer shelves somewhere around 1960.